Under Construction                                                                                 

Illustrations, Exercises and Practice
Using Mediation

This is an exercise workbook.  It is the place that all the exercises, illustrations and practice opportunities are centralized.

It will not be very effective to try to make sense of these without first having reviewed the materials presented in the Main Menu.

The exercises are "experiential" in the sense that they try to give you some experience and then let you note what happens, what differences you note, how your attention is shifted, etc.  From this, you will begin to understand the distinctions and concepts much better than you could if all you had was an explanation.

[Note on presentation:  As they are developed, each exercise consists simply of notes sequenced into this text.  However, as each exercise is sufficiently developed, it should be placed in a .htm file so the same material can be linked from here and also from the relevant content pages.]

Mediation Case Examples for Use in Illustrations and Exercises


Illustrations

Practice Exercises for Individual Facets

Integrative Practice Exercises

Recursive Exercises

Entailments

Making Distinctions

Integrating Use of Distinctions

 

Start Running Example

Bodily Movement vs. Other Metaphors

Integrating Distinctions and Reference Points

 

Listening, Questioning, Extending

Target Domain

Integrating “Classic” Metaphor With Bodily Movement Metaphor

 

Source & Target Domains

Source Domain

Integrating How World Works with Metaphor

Naming and Making the Most Of

 

Event Sequence

Switching Between Domains

 

 

 

Metaphor Elements

 

 

 

Identify Concepts & Categories; Which Ones Have Metaphoric Inferences?

 

 

 

Metaphor Clusters

 

 

 

Change Scope

 

 

 

Draw or Describe Picture That Gives Gist

 

 

 

Moving Together vs. Moving Separately

 

 

 

Extending a Metaphor

 

 

 

Look for Additional Metaphors Picking Up Additional Aspects

 

 

 

Completing a Metaphor

 

 

 

Metaphors of Cause and Effect

 

 

 

Event Structure

 

 

 

Event Sequence

 

 

 

Complementarity

 

 

 

Selecting, Switching Perspective

 

 

 

Using “Face Value”

 

 

 

Mediator Metaphors

 

 

Illustrations

Entailments

Long list of Source Domains with common entailments.

 

Start Running Case Example

Let me take the "Common Journey" metaphor that John Haynes talks about.  In a mediation I recently did the parents were in their first session to negotiate their divorce.

They had told me they weren't able to discuss things very easily.

She spoke emotionally about how her life felt since their separation, uncertainty about money and how to be a parent pretty much alone.

He said they had been separated for two years, it was time to make it official, and have a regular parenting time schedule.

They listened patiently to each other, but she looked hopelessly away when he spoke.  When she spoke, his eyes rolled.  They were not communicating very well.

            [This case is continued in various illustrations below.]

 

Listening, Questioning, Extending

The above case with examples broken down into listening, questioning and extending.

Source & Target Domains

The above case with examples illustrating source and target domains.

Bodily Movement

The above case with examples of bodily movement metaphors introduced for guidance.

Event Sequence

Illustrates how changes or actions are broken down by the event sequence – a generic level metaphor that structures underlying processes.

Exercises

I structure exercises to be experiential.  My goal is to put people in the midst of the tension created when something habitually experienced as merged -- for example, the Target and Source Domains -- begins to differentiate.  Then they will ask themselves questions such as, "What is the difference?  How can I tell the difference?"  That is sufficient at this point in the learning process.  We are not yet trying to apply ourselves to a real mediation task.  Because we want only to bring this distinction into conscious awareness, the initial exercises are quite simple.  This way the learner can build a good foundation for precision in the practical use of metaphor.  I believe that such precision is best developed not by memorizing metaphoric examples, but by grasping general metaphor structure and then looking for signs of that structure in what clients present.

 

Distinctions

Method to bring metaphor process more into conscious awareness.

To bring the process of forming and using metaphor - which is primarily an unconscious process - into conscious awareness, we must learn to make conscious distinctions.  The first is the distinction between Target and Source Domains.

Most accounts of metaphor in philosophy, psychology, linguistics and cognitive science introduce the distinction between these two domains.   This establishes them as logically separate and helps the student, researcher or theorist deal with them independently.  But I have found that, because this thinking is a partially unconscious process, people don't readily learn this distinction as it applies to everyday examples.  When they are presented with everyday conversation and tasks that are routine in their work they frequently fail to differentiate between what is the Target and what is the Source.  As a result they often fail to recognize that metaphor is present.

People may be so accustomed to processing a metaphor holistically that they treat the Source as part of the Target, the essence or logic of the Target, but not something initially experienced separately.  When these same people are in their role as mediators I want them to be able to listen for this distinction in what a client is saying.  The mediator's role is to listen well but also to improve communications.  Skill with metaphor enables the mediator to ask questions that help to differentiate between the conflict faced by the client and the logic that may seem part of the conflict but which is, in fact, metaphorically understood from entirely separate experience.

Bodily Movement vs. Other Metaphors

Noticing Which Metaphors use Bodily Movement

The next distinction to make (in furthering our goal of bringing the operation of metaphor more into conscious awareness) is to notice which metaphors use bodily movement or object manipulation as the Source Domain.  For example, 

we arrived at a decision; 

he is a skunk; 

she dumped him for another man; 

his enthusiasm was infectious.

 

In English particularly, and especially when verbs are converted to nouns or the passive voice is used, action of all kinds is then expressed in very compact form.  This can make it more difficult to understand who or what is the actor, what is acted upon and how.  For example, 

confusion reigned;

he over generalized from partial information;

she was inclined to agree; any additional comments?  

 

Target Domain

Metaphoricity of lexical units in Target.

 

1.  Note the Source and Target of Each:

Pick out the words or phrases in each sentence below that are being used figuratively or that, if taken literally, produce incongruence, strangeness or added meaning from another context.  Such words indicate that the Target is understood metaphorically in terms of a Source Domain.

Mediation helps disputants reach a mutual decision.

There were underlying tensions that escalated into polarized conflict.

He made the decision, but will he follow through?

Just when I was getting to the point, he cut me off.

I gave (handed) her everything she wanted.

He has a certain set of beliefs.

They rediscovered their passion for ice cream.

Further reflection can help one learn how to isolate the Target Domain. 

a.         Remove the incongruous word(s) or substitute other words that are not incongruous, odd or rule-breaking; explore what meanings are still possible.

b.         Discuss the context of the Target Domain as it exists without incongruous words; what the context is that makes certain words odd or rule-breaking.

Source Domain

1.  Practicing the Experiential Shift Between Source and Target 

A description of a problem or conflict most often is intended to be understood literally -- that is, solely in terms of the Target Domain.  When figurative, incongruent or strange words or phrases are included in that description, a Source Domain is introduced usually without conscious awareness on the part of the speaker or listener.  Even though unconscious, such a Source Domain can contain valuable information that transfers to the Target and qualifies, extends or explains the Target more fully.  The following exercises allow practice in conscious shifting between Target and Source Domains to illustrate this: 

            a.  Take one of the above (e.g., Just when I was getting to the point, he cut me off).  Note the words that are figurative or incongruent.  Imagine a frame or context in which these words would be entirely literal and congruent (e.g., sailboat racing, power cut, lost telephone connection).  This would be a Source Domain.  As one sailboat is about to reach a point of land sticking out from the shore, another competitive sailboat cuts across his bow, forcing him to turn abruptly, lose wind, slow down, and fall behind.  From this Source Domain several factors appear that operated only unconsciously in the Target Domain.  For example, the "point" was easily seen by all, it might be an important turning point, competition is active, once cut off a person loses momentum, propulsion, and speed. 

            b.  Another example:  "I had questions about what she projected to spend on food."  A frame or domain where the understanding of the focus word "projected" might be entirely literal and congruent would be where an image is projected on a screen or a speaker's voice is projected to fill the hall.  As you consider such Source Domains, you may notice that something in a small format is expanded outward to fill a larger one, or something in one place now is made to be in another place.  Consider what you know about projected in such as Source Domain (e.g., how the thing being projected is at first prepared, how the projection depends upon the original thing, etc.).  Now apply it to the original Target quotation (the basis for the projected expenditure, the dependence of the projection upon the original, etc.).  Move back and forth between the Target language and the Source and, each time you shift, note how your experience is affected. 

 

2.  Practice in Distinguishing Which Source Cluster is Being Mapped To.  Explore Source Domain and Cluster(s).  Temporarily Isolate Thinking to Source.

Here is one type of exercise to illustrate and practice clarifying, communicating and extending operating metaphors.  By "extending" we mean including additional aspects of the same metaphor or other metaphor clusters related naturally to those that are initially operating.  (They all are related because they work together in the normal course of bodily movement and almost always have a corresponding function in whatever the Target Domain may be.)  These natural extensions in the Source Domain can increase options in the Target Domain.

Case Example:  Father depends on Mother to care for their children and to contribute support.  He wants Mother to have a life insurance policy with a large death benefit.  He says it will make him feel more comfortable to know that, if she dies, he will be able to afford the help he will need to care for their children.  She is opposed to this saying that would make her more valuable dead than alive.  

            Take Father’s operating metaphor first, hypothesizing that he is in an emotional state of mind; go to the Locating/Containing cluster. This cluster helps us hypothesize metaphorically that an emotional state is a location in space.   It is understood metaphorically as a distinct place that may be enclosed and hard to move from, but may be a known distance from other places (states).  

                        Form questions to be asked of the disputant to test and refine hypotheses; our goal now is to experience this metaphor in terms of the Source Domain only (not referring back to the Target Domain for the purposes of this exercise), so form questions using Source Domain terminology only. Questions that come to mind are, “What can you see from there?  And, “While in that place are you moving (towards what? falling, sliding?) or stationary?”  

            Express the operating metaphor using Source terminology.  An additional experiential component would be to tell a story using Source Domain language; while doing so you may link to other clusters that seem relevant.  For example, “This father knows he is in a uncomfortable place; what is the place actually like (metaphorically)?  What moves is he making to get out of it?  He could jump, call for help, grasp onto something.” From the metaphor cluster in which the operating metaphor has been found, note other related or relevant metaphoric understandings and links to other clusters.   Going to another cluster (e.g., Balancing) may suggest other questions, such as “Do you feel off balance?”, “What is needed to get your feet under you?” 

            Form hypotheses about extending the operating metaphor; reiterate as needed (ask questions, listen to the other person’s answers, further extend whatever metaphor you hear being expressed).

            Move around within a cluster;

            Move to another cluster;

            Move to another layer;

            Move to another standard, evaluation, safety... orientation;

E.g., disputant says, "I must stand up for my rights."  This is in Movement/locomotion cluster; try moving to Seeing.

 

Switching Between Domains

Switching the Starting Point From One Domain to the Other.

Ordinarily we focus first on the Target Domain -- this is the topic of immediate concern.  Then we may look for "triggers" present in the Target that make cross-domain mapping into a Source Domain.  To cultivate conscious awareness of how such mapping works it is useful to make deliberate steps from the Target to Source domains.

Useful experience may also be gained by starting with what you might often think of as a Source Domain and work "backwards".  So mediators, accustomed to focusing first on a problem or dispute, would instead focus first on bodily movement with no particular problem or dispute in mind.  For example, take a bunch of small objects in your hand (coins, marbles, pencils) and handle and feel them until you notice something through your tactile or kinesthetic senses.

Does the movement or sensing bring anything to mind?  Do you find yourself thinking about any situation, behavior, activity, scene, or other thought?

    1.1 [Starting With Target Domain]

    1.2 [Starting with Source Domain]

1.  Noticing Which Metaphors use Bodily Movement

The next distinction to make (in furthering our goal of bringing the operation of metaphor more into conscious awareness) is to notice which metaphors use bodily movement or object manipulation as the Source Domain.  For example, 

            we arrived at a decision; 

            he is a skunk; 

            she dumped him for another man; 

            his enthusiasm was infectious.

 

In English particularly, and especially when verbs are converted to nouns or the passive voice is used, action of all kinds is then expressed in very compact form.  This can make it more difficult to understand who or what is the actor, what is acted upon and how.  For example, 

            confusion reigned;

            he over generalized from partial information;

            she was inclined to agree; any additional comments?  

2.  Practicing the Experiential Shift Between Source and Target 

A description of a problem or conflict most often is intended to be understood literally -- that is, solely in terms of the Target Domain.  When figurative, incongruent or strange words or phrases are included in that description, a Source Domain is introduced usually without conscious awareness on the part of the speaker or listener.  Even though unconscious, such a Source Domain can contain valuable information that transfers to the Target and qualifies, extends or explains the Target more fully.  The following exercises allow practice in conscious shifting between Target and Source Domains to illustrate this: 

            a.  Take one of the above (e.g., Just when I was getting to the point, he cut me off).  Note the words that are figurative or incongruent.  Imagine a frame or context in which these words would be entirely literal and congruent (e.g., sailboat racing, power cut, lost telehone connection).  This would be a Source Domain.  As one sailboat is about to reach a point of land sticking out from the shore, another competitive sailboat cuts across his bow, forcing him to turn abruptly, lose wind, slow down, and fall behind.  From this Source Domain several factors appear that operated only unconsciously in the Target Domain.  For example, the "point" was easily seen by all, it might be an important turning point, competition is active, once cut off a person loses momentum, propulsion, and speed. 

            b.  Another example:  "I had questions about what she projected to spend on food."  A frame or domain where the understanding of the focus word "projected" might be entirely literal and congruent would be where an image is projected on a screen or a speaker's voice is projected to fill the hall.  As you consider such Source Domains, you may notice that something in a small format is expanded outward to fill a larger one, or something in one place now is made to be in another place.  Consider what you know about projected in such as Source Domain (e.g., how the thing being projected is at first prepared, how the projection depends upon the original thing, etc.).  Now apply it to the original Target quotaton (the basis for the projected expenditure, the dependence of the projection upon the original, etc.).  Move back and forth between the Target langnE and the Source and, each time you shift, note how your experience is affected. 

3.  Additional Exercises in Conscious Awareness 

Here is one type of exercise to illustrate and practice clarifying, communicating and extending operating metaphors.  By "extending" we mean including additional aspects of the same metaphor or other metaphor clusters related naturally to those that are initially operating.  (They all are related because they work together in the normal course of bodily movement and almost always have a corresponding function in whatever the Target Domain may be.)  These natural extensions in the Source Domain can increase options in the Target Domain.

Case Example:  Father depends on Mother to care for their children and to contribute support.  He wants Mother to have a life insurance policy with a large death benefit.  He says it will make him feel more comfortable to know that, if she dies, he will be able to afford the help he will need to care for their children.  She is opposed to this saying that would make her more valuable dead than alive.  

            Take Father’s operating metaphor first, hypothesizing that he is in an emotional state of mind; go to the Locating/Containing cluster. This cluster helps us hypothesize metaphorically that an emotional state is a location in space.   It is understood metaphorically as a distinct place that may be enclosed and hard to move from, but may be a known distance from other places (states).  

            Form questions to be asked of the disputant to test and refine hypotheses; our goal now is to experience this metaphor in terms of the Source Domain only (not referring back to the Target Domain for the purposes of this exercise), so form questions using Source Domain terminology only. Questions that come to mind are, “What can you see from there?  And, “While in that place are you moving (towards what? falling, sliding?) or stationary?”  

            Express the operating metaphor using Source terminology.  An additional experiential component would be to tell a story using Source Domain language; while doing so you may link to other clusters that seem relevant.  For example, “This father knows he is in a uncomfortable place; what is the place actually like (metaphorically)?  What moves is he making to get out of it?  He could jump, call for help, grasp onto something.” From the metaphor cluster in which the operating metaphor has been found, note other related or relevant metaphoric understandings and links to other clusters.   Going to another cluster (e.g., Balancing) may suggest other questions, such as “Do you feel off balance?”, “What is needed to get your feet under you?” 

            Form hypotheses about extending the operating metaphor; reiterate as needed (ask questions, listen to the other person’s answers, further extend whatever metaphor you hear being expressed).

4.  Exercises in Practical Application

The following exercises begin to integrate all of the previous distinctions and illustrate how they can be applied in working with mediation clients or disputants.  This means learning how to move easily back and forth between Target and Source Domains.  Note that the integration covers not only how the previous distinctions work together, but also how they relate to the three highly valued principals of the mediation process - careful listening, questions that promote communications, and expanding options.  Here are the steps of this exercise:  

            Decide which disputant’s metaphor to focus on first.

            Listen for and identify the language, movement or action in the Target Domain that may indicate a metaphor.

                        The Mom spoke about her life since she and her husband separated.  Her life was at home with the children.  She took each day is it came.  It was hard to see what the future would be like.

            Use the Bodily Movement metaphor clusters to hypothesize about one or more operating metaphors.

            Form questions to be asked of the disputant to test and refine hypotheses.

            Express and communicate the operating metaphor: 

            Transfer metaphor patterns, logic and intelligence to the Target. 

            From the metaphor cluster in which the operating metaphor has been found, note other related or relevant metaphoric understandings and links to other clusters.

            Form hypotheses about extending the operating metaphor; reiterate these steps as needed.

Here is another example to which the same steps can be applied: The Father said they had been separated for two years and it was time to get the divorce settled and get on with their lives.

5.  (another example) I need to write a paper, and the more time that passes, the more pressured I feel.  I think first that I should just work like hell and get a lot done, so that I will feel less pressured.  But the intense work adds to the pressure I feel.  So then I think I should work a little harder to get more done, but not so much as to increase the pressure too much.  This is an example of thinking mostly within the "Moving/Locomotion" cluster of metaphors, particular Speed and Ease.

a.  A Story Set in the Source Domain:  Put aside the Target Domain and think as much as possible only in the Source Domain.  Something is pushing you on all sides making you feel squeezed, constrained... (whatever "pressured" feels like).  Things are passing by, and the more this occurs the more pressured you feel, like you are being taken to a place you don't like.  You want relief.  What do you do?  Maybe you struggle to crawl, walk or run away from the place you don't like.  But you find that this, while reducing the threat of going to the place you don't like, doesn't relieve the pressured feeling -- in fact it seems to make it worse.  How can you move yourself to improve this situation?  Look at other sub-clusters, such as Path -- various steps towards a destination.

b.  Switch Metaphor Clusters:  In the Movement/Locomotion cluster, note the link to the Structure cluster.  Continue the Source Domain story in another cluster.

c.  Transfer to Target Domain: 

[Under development:      

[DBM tools may actually seem to alter Source by bringing attention to other parts of Source experience, including shift from remedial to generative aspects, through time from in time, safety to development, position to effect, etc.]            

[Noting How Shifting Domains Changes Distance Between Subject, Object and Action by Focusing on Process, putting Result or Product in Broader Perspective:           

            distinguish product from process and from working the process     

            follow logic in abstract without affecting real people or things         

            inspect how dynamics are different in differant contexts    

            can move "I", "me" from central or close-up; substitute other entities         

            hypothetical      

            a model, where "what if" is easier           

            easier to separate phases of a process, imagine alternatives        

            unpack terms, expand time, change distances or angles  ]

Metaphor Elements

Nouns (things, people, Agent, Affected entity, etc.)

Verbs (action, movement, force)

Prepositions (orientation, direction, relative position)

 

1.      Note which elements are present, absent.

One by one, remove what is present and note changes in clarity and what is meant.

One by one, add a missing element, note, etc.

Perspective arises from identifying and Agent, Affected Entity and "seeing" them, or "seeing from their point of view (i.e., identification).  If it seems difficult to identify the Agent, etc., simply choose the point of view of any entity and see if that entity is moving, being moved, etc.

            Example:  Attending a wedding, take guests point of view, who is moved by the ceremony to a place of sympathy for the couple and for their future, then moved to a place where I am with them (in celebration), then just left there (while the caterers struggle with food).  Metaphor shows guest being moved to where he saw the couple as..., then moved further, anticipating the destination of sharing the view, then being left to fend for self.

2.      Take classic metaphor Source Domain and identify one or more candidates for each Element.  For example, if the classic metaphor is Gardening, agent could be gardener, Affected Entity – person/people who eat from garden, Force/Movement – actions of gardener or growth of plants…, Locations – garden, seed, in ground, above ground, Obstacles – draught, weeds…, Paths – sequence of gardening steps

Metaphor Clusters

Based on the Bodily Movement clusters.

 

Container Attributes of Situation

Where Going?

Moving Person vs. Moving Possessions

Figure-Ground relationship of Force moving you to a location or destination

vs. moving objects or Possessions to or away from you.

Also, distinction between movement due to outside forces vs. inside.

            And, for outside "forces", the distinction between forces and obstacles.

 

Change Scope

 

Moving Together vs. Moving Separately

Differential Paths, Locations -- a Force may move one person or object differentially compared to the effect on another person or object that are also in the same context or frame.

 

Extending a Metaphor

Clusters

[exercises in Source Domain begin to do this; here, go further]

 

Completing a Metaphor

 

Metaphors of Cause & Effect

Cause and Effect Exercises

1.  Which of the following contain within them Agent, Affected Party, Force, Locations, Possessions, Container, Obstacle?

Everything is lined up for the next step.

He twisted her words and misled us.

She responded to what I said and was willing to negotiate.

After thinking through the ins and outs of what had happened, several questions came to mind.

She pulled the rug out from under him.

When will your progress depend upon how well the other is doing?

Will you pack everything before you go, or pick up what you need along the way?

Is your life mostly inside your house right now?

2.  Use time, motivation, evaluation and transition questions to explore Source Domain...

3.  Disturbing or Violent Emotion -- Cases Where Someone Else or Something External "Causes" Upset:

When an event "makes you angry" you may not be willing to pay attention to how you experienced the onset of the emotion or how the emotion is maintained -- it just seems to have been because of the event.  This is a structural "part-whole" situation where the parts fit together so seamlessly that they are not initially attended to (just as with an explosion or volcano eruption).

More global (e.g., cultural) metaphor may be the path to a Primary Conceptual Metaphor.  For example, the agreed-upon rules of this game have been broken.  These rules -- like any rules -- are followed most of the time, including immediately following an infraction.  When they are not followed something has happened increasing urgency or leaving an opportunity different from normal -- an opportunity for rule breaking.  Think about circumstances that might have made an opportunity in this case.  If this thinking focuses on openings or subtle movements, you will quickly find yourself in a Primary Conceptual domain.

Questions can be asked once there is a realization that this whole does have parts and that the event consists of phases or steps.  Here are some examples:

            A married man becomes livid, realizing that he has been dumped for another man.  Listen for his words or ask questions.  You may find:

                        Suddenly a channel is opened for hidden thoughts to get through.

                        An external force has hit him.

                        Feels violated - a sudden change in identity (location).

                        His location now occupied by someone else.

                        His existence in question, is denied.

                        A sudden lowering or drop in position.

            Terms of trust invalidated - "We tried and it didn't work" replaced by "dumped for someone else".

                        (Status changed in spouse's eyes) where he is located according to  spouse's perspective (is it the way she sees him or the way he sees her seeing him?)

                        The container, that kept certain things in and other things out, with its walls, limits, predictable attributes -- is broken or gone.

Another example:  In a casual conversation between friends, one person continues on for an extended period, making comments and assertions.  The other person feels uncomfortable but hardly speaks, just waiting for the first person to finish.  We could start with a sports metaphor (she's hitting shots I can't return) or a family metaphor (make the family strong by honoring contributions) or a gardening metaphor (has the ground been prepared for this crop?) or a journey metaphor (where are we going and where did we start from?).

Another example:  A man complains that he has been offended by an associate who has evidently ignored or invalidated his request for information (the associate has caused offense).  To him this is a serious matter and he continues to embellish the complaint and connect it to the associate's questionable character.  Listening to this you believe the man's feelings have been hurt and are concerned that he focus on this hurt rather than focus on the character of his associate.

Here we have a choice of Target Domains -- (1) the problem as perceived by the man (the associate's behavior and character having caused offense) or (2) the problem as conceived by you the listener (who wants to move the focus of attention from the associate to the man's own feelings).  Both are metaphors of cause and effect, with differently defined agents, affected entities, types of force or movement, etc.  Make a choice and ask the relevant questions.

Event Structure

Example of location version:  Target involves a teenager who has been grounded.

Do mapping               Grounded Teenager is Limiting an entity’s movement

                                    Limiting is Obstructing object’s movement

                                    Conflict is Objects Moving in Opposition

                                    Human Relations is Objects in Motion

                                    Event Structure (generic or most superordinate)

Draw inferences        From this hierarchy we would expect the grounded teenager to inherit structure of locations, forces, destinations, etc. from Event Structure metaphor:  Teenager is moved to ground by force, preventing teenager’s actions, for a purpose, using some method, including obstacles to flight, on a schedule…

Example of object version:  Target involves teenager with vague aspirations.

Do mapping               Goalless teenager is Person Who Isn’t Hungry
                                      (doesn’t hunt, shoot, fish, shop, get, buy, bargain…)
                                      e.g., s/he has no taste for art, can’t track prey, nothing
                                      in his sights, not a go-getter…
                                    Goalless teenager is Person Who Doesn’t Farm
                                      (doesn’t plan, till, plant, weed, harvest…)
                                    Goalless teenager is Person Not in Business
                                      (doesn’t invest, figure profit/loss, find customers…)
                                      e.g., she squanders, won’t look for best deal…
                                    Object Event Structure (most superordinate)

Draw inferences        From this (limited) hierarchy we would expect the goalless teenager to inherit structure of objects, possession, moving of objects to be largely done by others, not self-propelled, distinctions between long-term value and short-term not being made…

[From these examples, construct exercises that are more or less clearly cases of Location or Object version; that may involve first one, then other (e.g., request-fulfillment pattern), and that ask for a “classic” metaphor that can be revealed to have Event Structure.]

Event Sequence

 

Complementarity

Mutual completion of event sequence.

Reciprocity

Cyclical compensation

[see perceptual preferences]

STMP levels coordinated

Effectiveness, Affect, Position triangle

 

Selecting, Switching Perspective

[related to distinctions among Agent, Patient, etc. above]

 

1st, 2nd, 3rd person

Agent, Object, Affected Entity, Movement, Possessions, Containers

Satire categories

Evaluation/motivation triangle

FADS

 

Are frames, context, or other boundries relevant?

 

Mediator Metaphors

Introduction

When teaching about metaphors that clients use, how to detect them, clarify and extend them, participants often ask questions about procedure, appropriateness; they give examples of what they already do.  For example, one mediator said that when clients aren't moving successfully towards a settlement, he tells a story about a donkey, a carrot and a stick.  Another mediator asked whether it was appropriate to bring metaphoric material, largely unconscious, into conscious awareness without the permission of the client.

These questions switch reference point or point of view from that of clients to that of the mediator, and ask, "What metaphor relating to my role and behavior as a mediator is useful here?", or "As a mediator, what metaphor am I using?"

Exercises

1.  List two, three, or four of what you believe are your main tenets for mediation.   Identify the primary conceptual metaphors involved in each.

2.  This exercise gives practice in translating mediator activity into spatial and bodily movement terms.  First, think of a particular case you have mediated or observed.  Write down examples of what occurred during one or more of the sessions (questions asked, statements made, etc.).  Take each example and imagine the movements  which would figuratively characterize each thing the mediator does or says.  For example, stating ground rules (drawing lines), encouraging client to speak (opening), listening (receiving), talking (handing things to clients), stating a goal (pointing), mentioning steps (beginning to move towards).

3.  Example: 

One of the children of a couple in divorce mediation is said to be frightened of his father.  The mediator believes from what he has observed so far that the father is somewhat of a tyrant with both his wife and the children.  The child is depressed and is on medication for this, and the mother blames this on the poor relationship between father and child.  The father rejects this accusation.  Although the couple has been able to cooperate in parenting in the recent past, and has completed part of the mediation process, they have become stymied and have not agreed to schedule further sessions.  The mediator is considering what to do to (a) get the parents to cooperate in parenting and (b) get them back into mediation.

Put the mediator's options in movement terms:  For example, will the mediator pull the couple back into mediation, push them, nudge them, attract them?  If attracting them, will it be to turn them, point them, orient them, line things up, open their eyes, open a path?  Will it be necessary to give them something they want ("wanting" is a state or location), give them something they need to move further?  Is it better to loosen them up, unattach them, move them to a different vantage point?

4.  Example of Mediator Training

School mediators are taught the following steps:

            1.  Describe mediation process to disputants, set rules, invite participation and effort.

            2.  Story telling by disputants.

            3.  Set agenda.

            4.  Identify needs.

            5.  Construct solutions that meet as many of all disputants' needs.

            6.  Prepare an agreement.

            In step 1, disputants are told about and shown the container of mediation and invited to enter it.  It is a door through which disputants may pass to another location (a better place, a resolution).  Rules help distinguish the mediation container as different from other places.

            In step 2, disputants receive something special that mediator has for them -- recognition, honor, dignity, hope, freedom, the right to occupy a position, help to go deeper.  Disputants move material out onto the table where it can be seen, sorted through, organized.

            In step 3, the results of the sorting and organizing is sorted again and moved to the board where it can be seen.

            In step 4, the positions that the disputants have identified are looked into in more detail to find out what they are on the way to -- destinations (needs requiring fulfillment).  Mediator receives material from disputants, manipulates it somewhat and gives it back (mirroring, reframing).

            In step 5, structures are found, put together, looked at to find out if they will take or move the disputants to the places identified.  The mediator may identify different destinations for the disputants that are closer together (common ground).  If a disputant isn't familiar with territory, mediator shows him around.  Mediators may inadvertently spend too much time showing disputants around instead of letting them find their own way.  Mediators get closure, reach out and bring disputants back, tie up loose ends.

            In step 6, a written agreement makes the construction more clear, showing disputants where they can and cannot go.

Practice in Integration

Exercises in Practical Application

 

Integrating Use of Distinctions

Distinctions thought to be "out there" are often thought to actually exist in what is being observed.  This often leads to equivalences.  On the other hand, when distinctions are found to be in one's experience, they become How You Work It.

 

Types of distinctions:

            sensory

            conceptual

            structural

            functional

           

Distinctions can be

            covered

            uncovered, discovered

            recovered

 

Distinctions can be in terms of

            self

            other

            time

            connections

            liking, wanting, needing

            being liked, being wanted, being needed

            likability, desirability, necessity

            irritation (conceptual issue)

            stimulation (concern)

            motivation (imminent, urgent, crisis/critical)

 

For example, in forming questions about a distinction, you can ask:

            Simply how you know it is ___, or different from X, or you can ask if something is different within oneself, between one person and another, over time, as to connections, liked more..., just noticeable, enough to make you think of doing something, actually gets you doing something.

            In noticing when a task "sucks me in", "Does (what tells you that) it affect(s) you?"  "Does it put you in a different place?" "Do others react differently?" "Does it (what part) touch(es) you?" "Do you relate to it differently?" "Does it influence your environment?" "Do you like/want/need it more?" "Is it more likable/desirable/necessary?" "Is it enough to notice?" "Do you find yourself (what makes you) leaning towards action?"

The following exercises begin to integrate all of the previous

distinctions and illustrate how they can be applied in working with mediation clients or disputants.  This means learning how to move easily back and forth between Target and Source Domains.  Note that the integration covers not only how the previous distinctions work together, but also how they relate to the three highly valued principals of the mediation process - careful listening, questions that promote communications, and expanding options.  Here are the steps of this exercise: 

Decide which disputant's metaphor to focus on first.

Listen for and identify the language, movement or action in the Target Domain that may indicate a metaphor.

The Mom spoke about her life since she and her husband separated.  Her life was at home with the children.  She took each day is it came.  It was hard to see what the future would be like.

Use the Bodily Movement metaphor clusters to hypothesize about one or more operating metaphors.

Form questions to be asked of the disputant to test and refine hypotheses.

Express and communicate the operating metaphor:  Transfer metaphor patterns, logic and intelligence to the Target.

From the metaphor cluster in which the operating metaphor has been found, note other related or relevant metaphoric understandings and links to other clusters. 

Form hypotheses about extending the operating metaphor; reiterate these steps as needed.

Here is another example to which the same steps can be applied:

The Father said they had been separated for two years and it was time to get the divorce settled and get on with their lives.

Integrating Distinctions and Reference Points

2.  PROPOSED OVERALL SEQUENCE FOR LEARNING DISTINCTIONS AND PRACTICING IN SMALL GROUPS.

 

Integrating "Classic" Metaphor With Bodily Movement Metaphor

Note:

Start with something like battle, transformed into common journey.  Illustrate need to:

 

            - Join client's own metaphors

            - Distinguish Target from Source

            - Select reference point(s)

            - ...

 

Integrating How World Works With Metaphor

General Method to include several metaphor characteristics or forms:

0.  Clarify what the problem or dispute actually is in the client's experience.

Ask questions such as:

            "What affects you most about this?  What is main effect?  Is it different?  What comes up for you?  Is it different from normal?  Where do you sense it?  Did it move you off center, off course?",

            "How do you tell how big a problem you have here?"

            "What signal/message do you get?",

            "What is the first thing you noticed indicating this problem?  What is the first response you felt inside?",

            "What do you first sense that tells (how did it register) you that you have a problem?  When did you notice your own internal response?  Is it similar when you think about it now?  In a word or two how would you describe your internal state right now?  Is it different than you expected?"

            "How do you know it ... (e.g., is a current conflict, is an insult, will cause trouble...) ?",

            "How do you sense that it pushes you, opposes you, gets in your way...?"Try to go a bit beyond the surface here to find out how the client uniquely experiences the described problem; often problems are presented in self-evident terms, and it is important non-judgmentally to recapture in the moment what the client senses has happened both in the environment and her/his responses.]

            "How would someone else be affected by this?"

Example A:  A single father is individually exploring, in consultation with the mediator, reopening negotiations with the mother of his child after a period of great hostility and estrangement.  He admits immediately that he feels very averse to dealing with his ex again.  He is extremely hurt, humiliated and believes she is to blame after she defeated him badly in court and his pre-teen child has refused to see him or be in contact.  The mediator asks, "How do you know you don't want to deal with her again?"  He answers, "When I imagine encountering her I feel sick inside, tightening in the belly, rage.  I recall her in court, in school meetings, where she told untruths and I was unable to be heard."

Example B:  In a mediation with a married couple, the Wife frequently mentions that Husband has hurt her feelings and that it is nearly impossible for her to go on with the discussions.  Husband's behavior is not particularly hostile, so the mediator suggests spending a few moments to get a better understanding of this impediment to negotiations.  The mediator asks, "How do you first detect that your feelings have been hurt?"  "At first I just feel dull and hurting and when I look inside I feel a dull tightening feeling around the middle of my body and then sense that I don't want to engage in conversation.  I don't look forward to the next thing and I want to withdraw or maybe hide, leave the room.  Then I may feel angry and want to argue or verbally retaliate.  I start thinking the words that hurt me are just plain wrong, maybe stupid, and definitely inaccurate."

1.  Identify if what the client is talking about involves How The World Works,

How You Work The World (including oneself), or some of both.  Help the client clarify (1) the distinctions between influences from the world, outside, versus how s/he works the world, and (2) gaps or transitions as a thing moves or becomes something else.

Ask such questions as:

            "Was there one thing or more than one that lead to this problem?"

            "Was it a chain of events, a pot stewing, a bunch of things stirred together, strong currents to contend with, a sudden surprise or explosion, a long simmering of a number of things, a seed planted long ago, one particularly damning thing, chickens coming home to roost, so many strikes against you, the deck getting stacked against you...?",

            "What tells you that the problem comes from something he/she/they did (the way the world worked)?"

            "What indicates for you the impact you have on this particular situation?"

            "What tells you the degree to which you effect this situation?"

            "What indicates for you the impact this has on you?"

            "What strategy did you decide on in response?"

            "Do you know of anyone who, if in your place, would handle this without any difficulty?  How would this person respond differently?"

            "How

Example A continued:  The mediator says, "So, right now as you recall the bad experiences with her regarding your child, not able to be heard, what might that turn into if you spoke with her now?"  The client answers, "I would still expect her views might be the only ones that would be heard."  The mediator asks, "How come?"  "She has the weight and authority, because my child has pretty much refused contact with me.  He doesn't seem to need or want me.  As long as he is doing reasonably well living with her, since I've been out of his life this much time, how can I be heard if I try to argue that we need to spend time together?"  The mediator asks, "What would stop you being heard?"  "People will say it is something I want but my child doesn't need it or want it.  End of story."  The mediator asks, "She will say this or people will say this?"  "She will say it and everyone with any kind of influence will pretty much agree."  The mediator says, "You're his father and you don't have any pull?"  "That's what it seems.  I just feel hurt, unfairly put down, missing my kid, and no way open to me to do anything for the good.  Whatever I do is likely to make things worse -- me feeling worse, resenting his mother more, and my kid wanting even more not to see me -- none of which does anybody any good."

[try metaphors to see if any fit]  "If you said you and your child ought to spend time together you would be stopped, gagged, speaking from a low position, paddling against too strong a current, pissing into the wind, howling from deep inside some cave?"  "No, not exactly."

[filling gap]  The mediator asks, "So you're the outsider -- relagated to really a low position, with no say and no connection, and no easy way in?"  "Yes, I'm a sort of blacksheep, but I haven't actually done anything to deserve to be in this position."  The mediator says, "Yes, I suppose most often a 'blacksheep' does things others find offensive."  "Well, I did certain things, but nothing deserving of this."  The mediator asks, "So you've been profiled as a blacksheep, misidentified as someone who doesn't fit the good father role?"  "Yes."  The mediator says, "You did things, took a different stance than your child's mother, and one thing lead to another, and now you don't have the status as parent that you had before."  "That's pretty much it."

[general extension of any metaphor to exploratory mode]  The mediator asks, "So you don't know absolutely for sure, but what you do know leads you to this conclusion, is that right?"  "Yes."  The mediator asks, "Are you interested in finding out more particularly what your status is and how your child and others may see what is going on?"

[extension to as-yet ignored aspects of operating metaphor]  The mediator says, "What do you have as outsider, a blacksheep, that you would be deprived as part of the in-group, as a father already connected to his child?"

Example B continued:  The mediator asks, "What tells you that these feelings and thoughts that you have come from what Husband said?"  "I'm surprised, often startled by how hurtful the words are.  I comes from out of the blue.  This means it's what he says that is doing it to me.  His words (in these cases) hurt me."  The mediator asks, "If you simply get back into the hurt place for a moment, what thoughts do you find yourself having or do you say anything to yourself?"  "I listen to the words, and they are about me, about what I had said or done, and they are unfair and untrue.  I'm used to hearing things about myself and judgments -- we talk this way a lot.  It usually doesn't have this effect.  I'm always surprised, taken by surprise when it's hurtful.  I lose my bearings."  "It knocks you lose?"  "Yes."  "Once knocked lose are there any thoughts?"  "I'm on autopilot, I just go to dull, hurt, no interest in anything.  Then I think I want to leave."  The mediator asks, "So, someone else is at the controls at this point, getting clearance to depart?"  "Right, I suppose its my subconscious trying to fly me out of there."

[now we have distinguished the outside trigger from some automatic responses inside and found a metaphor for it; the metaphor can be expanded, perhaps to learn to operate without autopilot in this case, to fly somewhere new...]

2.  How is each aspect found in 1. regarded in metaphors terms?  If no metaphor is apparent, identify distinctions that are being made in each aspect.

3.  What elements are included?  Missing?

4.  What layers?

5.  What causation?

Face Value

What is person’s task or what is he/she wanting to do, basically, when you hear the face value of the words or see the most obvious parts of the picture.  For example, employees are disputing; they go to the boss for a decision; the metaphor here could be Decision is Appeal to Authority, or Solution is What is Easiest Seen, or Decision is Father Knows Best, or Where to Go with this is Found on Maps.

Whenever a metaphor is seen or metaphorical expression given, the use of the particular language or form is sanctioned by a conceptual mapping.  It is useful, then, to ask, “What conceptual mapping sanctions this?”

Naming and Making the Most Of

1.        Name, in words that come easily, the Target and Source Domains (Target: what is being talked about or depicted?  Source: what is it being made to look like, seem like, understood through?).

a.       If can’t detect metaphor, identify concepts involved that differentiate entities or events in Target or that just stand out.

b.       What attributes or dimensions of concepts might be figurative?

2.        Name Target and Source using most superordinate terms you can think of.

3.        Map correspondences; polysemy; entailments; inheritance from superordinates.

4.        Identify one or more special cases using subordinate terms.

5.        What is the basic-level case?

6.        Extend metaphor by identifying one or more additional entailments or dimensions of the Source not yet mapped to the Target.

7.        Elaborate one or more existing dimensions.

8.        Devise a questioning statement that shows possible inadequacy of the metaphor.

9.        Identify at least one additional metaphor that applies simultaneously or picks up additional aspects.

10.    Devise a personification.

11.    What is a possible governing or metametaphor? Aspect, Event Structure…

12.    Find generic-level metaphors; see if a pattern can be found.

Example:

Divorced parents with a history of distrust and hostility towards each other are trying to work out a mid-week overnight with the father for their 7-year old child.  The father wants to pick up the child after school and keep the child until he goes to work the next morning.  He would leave the child at a suitable daycare center that opens early.  The mother is willing in principle, but points out that the child has a regular sports activity on the proposed afternoon after school and that the daycare center is too far for her to drive in morning rush hour traffic to pick up and then prepare their child for school.  The father says that he is willing to make it any other day of the week.  The mother says let’s wait until the sports activity is finished and find a closer daycare facility.

1.         Name, in words that come easily, the Target and Source Domains.

Changing the schedule is solving a puzzle/sorting out a disruption

2.         Name Target and Source in the most superordinate terms you can think of.

Schedule Change is Rearranging Strange-Shaped Pieces

3.         Map correspondences.

Space corresponds to time.

Subdivisions of available space correspond to intervals of time.

Variously-shaped pieces correspond to steps or activities to be put in schedule.

Different shapes correspond to lengths of time, desirability, appropriateness.

Pieces fitting well together corresponds to schedule that works for everybody.

Pieces not fitting well corresponds to proposal that isn’t acceptable to all.

Bending or changing the shape of pieces corresponds to pressure to accommodate.

4.         Identify one or more special cases using subordinate terms.

Pieces stuck together or that fit together are steps or activities that one or more parties want to happen together or in succession.

Pieces left over are steps or activities that won’t happen, yet probably should.

Small pieces are less important steps or activities.

5.         What is the basic-level case?

Time with child is biggest piece [really a special case].

6.         Extend metaphor by identifying one or more additional entailments or dimensions of the Source not yet mapped to the Target.

Pieces might fit better if flipped over, turned inside out, upside-down.

Pieces could be custom-shaped.

7.         Elaborate one or more existing dimensions.

Make existing space larger, smaller, triangular…

8.         Devise a questioning statement that shows possible inadequacy of the metaphor.

Some activities might need to happen at the same time, not in succession.

9.         Identify at least one additional metaphor that applies simultaneously.

Changing the schedule is raising dust/drawing fire (being shot down).

Changing the schedule is re-filling a container (re-packing a suitcase).

Changing the schedule is setting off in another direction.

Changing the schedule is re-computing the accounts.

10.      Devise a personification.

Changing the schedule burdens our lives (Schedules are People’s Lives)

The schedule is selfish/takes too much out of me/doesn’t give me enough.

11.      What is a possible governing or metametaphor?

puzzle

12.      Find generic-level metaphors; see if a pattern can be found.

Moving objects to and from each party.


 

Name, in words that come easily, the Target and Source Domains

 

If can’t detect metaphor, identify concepts involved that differentiate entities or events in Target or that just stand out…

 

…and/or note more than one domain operating to produce meaning.

 

What attributes of concepts or other domains might be figurative?

 

Name Target and Source using general terms.

 

Map correspondences:

Element A in Target corresponds to X in Source,

Polysemy;
Entailments (modifiers, qualities, correlations, roots, patterns);
Inferences (if X then must assume Y),
Diagrams showing spatial relations, movement, containers;
Inheritances from superordinates
.

 

 

Typical phrases that illustrate

 

 

 

 

 

Chunk to less/more inclusive categories,

Less/more inclusive time frames,

Unpack the implied process or sequence,

Look for events conflated with ones named,

3 layers (Direction, Strategy, Performance),

Related bodily movement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Identify one or more special cases using subcategories or subordinate terms.

Member of category,

Point in time,

Step in process or sequence,

Specific case from discourse.

 

What is the basic-level case?

 

Extend metaphor by identifying one or more additional entailments or dimensions of the Source not yet mapped to the Target.

 

Elaborate one or more existing dimensions.

 

Devise a questioning statement that shows possible inadequacy of the metaphor.

 

Identify at least one additional metaphor that applies simultaneously or picks out additional aspects.

 

 

 

Devise a personification.

 

 

 

What is a possible governing or metametaphor?

Some pattern?
Is it generic-level?
Aspect,
Event Structure…

States are Locations
Changes are Movements
Causes are Forces
Causation is Forced Movement
Actions are Self-propelled Movements
Purposes are Destinations
Means are Paths
Difficulties are Impediments to Motion
Freedom of Action is the Lack of Impediments to Motion
External Events are Large, Moving Objects (that exert force)
Long-term, Purposeful Activities are Journeys

Container, path, force dynamics