gap in "then"; why does one fo gap in "become" -- does assist "making me" -- causation
"bad  What operating metaphors do y Each of these represents a met Clients think and speak using Do you find a familiar sequenc To find metaphor in the Target

 
 
 
 
 

form questions.

"Let's decide how to separate, then tell the kids about the divorce."

gap in "then"; why does one follow the other?
steps on a path
map
decision tree
hiker and guide

"She would become dependent in assisted living."

gap in "become" -- does assisted living "cause" dependency? lead to?
steps on a path, one-way street, sink hole, slippery slope, use it or lose it.
once going down a path, tend to keep going to end.

Alternatives:
"If we do assisted living now, the nursing home is next."

"Stop making me look like the bad guy."

"making me" -- causation
"bad guy" -- criminal in the movies
"look like" -- seeing is knowing; inner and outer, depth and surface

1. Choose Case Example

1. Pick a case from those given, or own.

1. Take an example:

2. Assign Roles and briefly play roles to gain understanding.

2. Assign Roles and Briefly Role Play Disputants' Part(s)

2. Discuss and identify Reference Points, Elements,

3. Decide What Metaphor Mode to Use

Each breakout group to decide either to
find operating metaphor (see if one of the chosen type seems present, or can be used for queries)

or construct guiding metaphor (focus on the Source domain of one of the chosen type and note/elaborate on ideas);

3. Discuss and identify Reference Points, Elements,

3. Identify possible client metaphors

Case A: Two reference points (Father's possible metaphor of how the parenting schedule will work, and Mother's);
Elements in Father's possible metaphor -- Agent (Father), Affected Parties (children), Movement of children from place to place, activity to activity; Locations, homes, activities; Possessions (time?), Obstacles, time limits, meals, homework tasks.
Elements in Mother's -- Agent, herself, Affected Parties (children), movement (she seems to want to hold kids in orbit), Possessions (kids?), Obstacles (the schedule), Locations (same as Dad).
Questions for Father: What are you up against to make this work? Is there enough time?
Questions for Mother: Are the kids' activities kind of fluid in your home? Is it easy or not so easy to keep things going smoothly?

Case B: Two reference points;
Elements: Wife - Agent (self), Affected Parties (house), Force/Motion (self-propelled as to work and devotion she put into house; Location (place or mental space where house is); Possessions (money, effort, devotion); obstacles (work is too hard, whatever kept house from being finished, whatever keeps house from being more valuable now).
Elements: Husband (same as Wife, except Obstacle of her no longer being passionate about house, of wanting to get money out).
Incongruity: Wife - "lost" interest, something disappeared as if without some thought process; wants something to "show", metaphorically understood as a demonstration, investment, etc..
Incongruity Husband - "loves" house, as if it were a being and he keeps faithful, loyal, more important than most other things in life, more important because it is so special, honorable, earth-friendly, going through life together wherever it leads.
Gaps Wife - when you decide to stop devoting yourself to something why do you have to have something to show? Idea of having made a mistake in the first place?
Questions Wife - Where do you think your great interest in this house went? What does it mean if you invest heavily and end up with little or nothing?
Questions Husband - Are there several different things that make you want this house and to continue owning and working on it? Would you ever sell it voluntarily? Can you love it as much without a wife?

4. Continue role play. Mediators ask questions to

5. Report to whole group.

A Range of Source Domains

So often we "name" metaphors in order to make them more accessible and conscious, and just the name automatically calls to mind at least some of what is entailed in the metaphor. For example, if I mention "travel" as a metaphor, you are likely to think immediately of a change in scenery, going somewhere in a car or plane, packing, choosing a destination, etc. Likewise, recalling an entailment (e.g., "pack your bags") can elicit the entire metaphor.

One useful way to expand your capacity with metaphor is to organize and become more familiar with useful categories of Source Domains.

Bodily Movement

Break out groups of 4 persons each - 2 disputants and 2 mediators.

Breakout Group Exercise

Exercise: A case example is elicited from members of each group or chosen from those provided. Each breakout group decides whether to develop guiding metaphor or uncover operating metaphors.

If Guiding Metaphor: Put up examples from each category of metaphor (Common Activities & Objects, Cultural, etc.) and talk about how they may be used; having chosen the Source for a guiding metaphor, remind group about Target and Source.

Offer a case example (such as one on level -1), and ask
same question; see what ideas people have about how to use metaphor (e.g., people may see similarities between Target and one of the metaphor examples; people may see potential in a metaphor for guidance, etc.)

Should participants role play? This would require at least 3 in a group. Might work to have all 3 understand the case, then role play a simple discussion (for clarity of the case). Then group could discuss strategy for metaphor, and then one or more participants role play the mediator with this strategy.

Case 1

Husband didn't want divorce:
Husband says they don't have to end the marriage, that no matter what, they have things they can do and help available to turn things around. He insists that you just don't do that to kids when there is help available and things left that you can try.

Case 2

Wife chose not to work:
Husband says Wife didn't want to work while kids were small, so they had limited money and went into debt. Wife points out that this was a joint decision. Now there is a marital debt that Husband hadn't wanted them to have in the first place. Furthermore Wife wants Husband to transfer some of his retirement account to her because she wasn't able to contribute to hers while she wasn't working.

Case A: Best way for Father to have almost equal parenting time.

Case B: They (partially) built a super-energy-efficient house.

Causal

Common Objects or Activities

Cultural

Elements

Elements

Entire group...

Examples...

What operating metaphors do you detect in the following?

[brief version of following:]
For example, a divorcing couple in mediation is discussing spousal support. They agree that Wife will live in their marital home and be a stay-at-home mom until both kids are full-time at school. And they agree that Husband should pay maintenance of a certain amount per month, but Husband says it should be for five years and Wife says seven. The mediator asks each to tell the most important thing about the length of time they each favor. Wife says seven years keeps the plan on track for the mother role and job future they both agree is best - she will have two years after their youngest child will be in full-day school, at which point she will have had two years to upgrade her skills and get a job. Husband says he is just marking time and won't have the money to buy a home until maintenance is over, and five years is plenty long enough to wait.

The mediator is listening carefully for metaphor. He hears Wife express the importance of keeping an agreed plan on track and Husband's concern for just marking time. For clarification he asks Wife, "So, you have it mapped out as to when things will be happening so that you get to where you need to go?" Wife responds that, yes, she does best when she has a clear itinerary.

The mediator ask Husband, "While you're paying the maintenance are you kept from stepping out into the life that would really suit you?" He responds that, no, he can step out and do things, but he can't really swing into gear the way he ought to. To get an even better sense of his experience I tried "climb aboard", "get up to speed", "in a good grove", but he finally said, "My job's working out fine, so is my social life, but until I have a more or less permanent home, with space for the kids, and start doing the things that make me feel whole, like getting a garden growing, I won't really have my life going."

Furthermore, if the mediator carefully highlights these metaphors or brings them out into the open, this enhances communications among disputants.

Continuing the example, for Husband I simply reiterated how a certain kind of place can make such a difference, a place in which he could then do the things of such importance to him. I understood his point of view better now, and Wife did too. Wife's words about the importance of mapping ahead of time and keeping track of when things will happen at least clarified how she thinks about this subject. Of course we did not yet have resolution of their differences. Nevertheless important work had been done in listening and communicating.

Finally, mediators can help bring out aspects of a metaphor that may not at first be attended to. Since such aspects often contain new options, the mediator's skill with metaphor will introduce additional ways to resolve conflict.

Continuing the example, with Wife's needs for spousal support now rendered metaphorically in terms of a well-planned trip, we can now begin to explore her needs using the logic of trip planning, maps, itineraries and - as yet unmentioned aspects of the same metaphor - changes in modes of transport, alternate routes to the same destination, picking places to stay, side trips and the like. Husband's metaphoric understanding of a home as a base of operations for certain sanctified pursuits…

Exercise 1

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 2

Furthering the Mediation Process by Uncovering Metaphors

Gaps

Gaps

If "Guiding" Metaphor Intervention -- Pick 1 or 2 Source Domains

If "Operating" Metaphor -- Assign Listening for Clues

Illustration

Incongruity

Incongruity

Incongruity, and Gaps.

Incongruity, and Gaps.

Layers

Layers

Look for...

Each of these represents a method of uncovering or detecting metaphor. They can be used separately or together.

Look for...

Each of these represents a method of uncovering or detecting metaphor. They can be used separately or together.

Notes

The cause of the divorce is coming from somewhere, something else.
What causes one to do such things?
How can you tell which thing causes what?

Notes

[operating metaphor] Husband bought something he now has "buyer's remorse" about; now being pitched for additional accessories.
Husband taken down a path that now requires side trips, new boots, etc. (since you're here, might as well…)
With this kind of (commercial) transaction (contract) having been completed, was there an implied warrantee?
Where you planting something then that you hoped would help an endangered species? Bear fruit later?

Operating Metaphors

Clients think and speak using metaphors, so the mediator will want to listen in a way that helps to detect and receive them. If we understand what metaphors clients are already using, we start from the client's point of view and use the client's frame of reference. Some advantages are that this will be more familiar and less threatening, will allow complexity to be economically condensed, and give the mediator opportunity later to pursue useful elaboration and expansion cooperatively with clients. To proceed in this way we attend first to the Target Domain. 

(Note how the uses of metaphor in mediation that have already been identified06c:\axon2002\metares\usesmetaphor.xon by the group may resemble or relate to this process of uncovering operating metaphor.)

When you discover metaphor underlying a position - a person's insistence on educational decision-making metaphorically understood as playing the game fairly, another's proposal for home buyout as part of a dance involving many other property division steps, that really narcissistic mother's arbitrary holiday plan as the most appropriate selection of wines… - not only do you have a fresh communications channel open, but also a defined structure with which to try to work further along towards resolution.

Recall that metaphor, compared to analogy where a comparison or likening is explicit, is usually imbedded in discourse or description that may sound literal but is actually metaphoric. This is particularly the case with Primary Conceptual Metaphor where bodily movement and experience is the Source Domain (e.g., this conversation is getting nowhere; what she said opened up new vistas, etc.).

Wilmot and Hocker (2001, pp 185-188) point out that metaphor may capture the systemic aspects of a conflict. They suggest listening for metaphor in language spontaneously used in order to assess the conflict from the disputants' points of view. A mediator can then ask questions about the metaphors detected, such as when a disputant might say that the conflict has "opened up a can of worms" (Dispute is Mess), ask if the worms might be used to catch a fish, or something else about how or why the can was opened at this time. These authors align metaphor in this application to theatrical or dramatic scenes and roles (think of an image, think about how would it play out, describe the scene, describe another scene that might also fit but play out differently). In this way the authors jump quickly from detection of a metaphor to using it as a vehicle for brainstorming, and setting up the (source domains of) metaphors as one side of an analogy where the unpacked subparts (correspondence mappings) can help in identifying new options.

Elicitation of clients' metaphors may also be possible, even when no evidence of operating metaphors is found. 
First you must identify the particular subject or issue regarding which a metaphor is being sought. Then ask the client, "What is the most important thing about this?" Then, "What do you particularly believe (is true) about this?", "What priorities are involved?", "What is valuable about this?", "What is the outcome? The steps to the outcome?", "How does that go? What does that work like? What other situation is your experience does that work like?" What else have you gone through like this?" What else have you gone through that this reminds you of?" "What other times in your life have been like this or reminds you of this?"
The intention of these questions is to help the client unpack the matter, reflect on the process involved, and liken it to other experience or domains. Often clients respond with descriptions of states or feelings. These are not metaphors for the matter being focused on. If states are described by the client, perhaps it is possible then to ask what lead up to that, in order to refocus on the process that may be (most likely is) comprehended in terms of metaphor.

Prosody (the patterns of stress and intonations in speech) or manner of speaking may also indicate use of metaphor. For example, change in tone, voice quality, slowing rate of speech, accentuation of word or phrase, manual gestures, gaze or facial emotion may be interpreted as a moment of recognition ("re-cognition"); also the use of "so to speak", "as it were", pauses or re-starts. Sometimes manual gestures may depict the Source Domain (e.g., high/low positions of hand, smooth, flat, container, being contained, etc.).

Are metaphors used more particularly when dealing with certain issues, problems or disputes more than others? Target Domains are generally more abstract, less familiar and vaguely understood. Kovecses (2002) found the following Target Domains to 'cry out' for metaphorical conceptualization: emotion, desire, morality, thinking, society, politics, economy, communications, time, life and death, events and actions, and religion.

Or, Use One of These Examples

Participants Choose Example From Practice

Reference Points

Reference Points

Time and Sequences

Do you find a familiar sequence present?

Do you find a familiar pattern of relationships among elements?

Do you find Time accounted for in a distinctive way?

Recall that metaphor, compared to analogy where a comparison or likening is explicit, is usually imbedded in discourse or description that may sound literal but is actually metaphoric. This can be the case with Narrative or "higher level" metaphor where a sequence of events of a certain type, or a story line, corresponds to a well-known metaphor or allegory (e.g., when his son got home late he interrogated him about everthing that happened (parental discipline is criminal investigation); she was an expert in detecting the slightest source of trouble (identifying fault is the Princess and the Pea)).

Sequences may be different from different Points of View...

Individual acts can be taken together to form a sequence. Missing parts of the sequence are searched for and included (also see How Gaps Filled In). Such a sequence may not form a narrative, but may become one by finding and adding layers of strategy or direction.

What is a narrative? As mentioned, we may regard an account of series of events (in the Performing layer) to be a narrative once we understand some of the other layers (Aims/Direction; Strategies/Emerging Qualities). The multiple levels working together give a "story quality" to the account. Strategies may be revealed by examples in the Performing layer. Aim/Direction may have to be inferred.

In one sense the narrative isn't a metaphor because it is meant as literal (even though it may perhaps contain simple metaphoric terms that summarize or enliven the account). In another sense the whole narrative account can be meant as the Source Domain of a metaphor mapped to a problem/dispute Target Domain.

Time and Sequences

Do you find a familiar sequence present?

Do you find a familiar pattern of relationships among elements?

Do you find Time accounted for in a distinctive way?

Recall that metaphor, compared to analogy where a comparison or likening is explicit, is usually imbedded in discourse or description that may sound literal but is actually metaphoric. This can be the case with Narrative or "higher level" metaphor where a sequence of events of a certain type, or a story line, corresponds to a well-known metaphor or allegory (e.g., when his son got home late he interrogated him about everthing that happened (parental discipline is criminal investigation); she was an expert in detecting the slightest source of trouble (identifying fault is the Princess and the Pea)).

Sequences may be different from different Points of View...

Individual acts can be taken together to form a sequence. Missing parts of the sequence are searched for and included (also see How Gaps Filled In). Such a sequence may not form a narrative, but may become one by finding and adding layers of strategy or direction.

What is a narrative? As mentioned, we may regard an account of series of events (in the Performing layer) to be a narrative once we understand some of the other layers (Aims/Direction; Strategies/Emerging Qualities). The multiple levels working together give a "story quality" to the account. Strategies may be revealed by examples in the Performing layer. Aim/Direction may have to be inferred.

In one sense the narrative isn't a metaphor because it is meant as literal (even though it may perhaps contain simple metaphoric terms that summarize or enliven the account). In another sense the whole narrative account can be meant as the Source Domain of a metaphor mapped to a problem/dispute Target Domain.

Tuning In To Metaphors That Clients Are Already Using

uncover metaphors, aid communication, extend...

Uncovering Operating Metaphors

To find metaphor in the Target (situation, account or conflict being presented) we look for indications of metaphor. Clients virtually always speak in terms of metaphors; the metaphors may not initially be obvious due to their subconscious operation.

Uncovering Operating Metaphors

To find metaphor in the Target (situation, account or conflict being presented) we look for indications of metaphor. Clients virtually always speak in terms of metaphors; the metaphors may not initially be obvious due to their subconscious operation.