Often we link to screen that gives prel web_ttfiles/ttGuiding_Metaphors.htm Here we name four widely used

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1. In whole group, select two metaphors in one or

1. Pick a case from those given, or own case.

2. Assign Roles and briefly play roles to gain understanding.

2. Break into groups, list the entailments for each metaphor.

3. Report back.

3. Use alternate submapping of the chosen metaphor Source Domain

4. Continue role play.

5. Report to whole group.

A Range of Source Domains

So often we "name" metaphors in order to make them more accessible and conscious, and just the name automatically calls to mind at least some of what is entailed in the metaphor. For example, if I mention "travel" as a metaphor, you are likely to think immediately of a change in scenery, going somewhere in a car or plane, packing, choosing a destination, etc. Likewise, recalling an entailment (e.g., "pack your bags") can elicit the entire metaphor.

One useful way to expand your capacity with metaphor is to organize and become more familiar with useful categories of Source Domains.

Agent Moves Affected Party to Another Location

Example: She Pushed Him Into a Corner
Agent: She
Force pushed
Affected him
Location corner
Obstacles ?

another category, and call by name.

Becoming Familiar With Certain Widely Used Metaphors

Bodily Movement

Break out groups of 4 persons each - 2 disputants and 2 mediators.

British House

Based on well-tested design, historically successful;
Durable, long-lived; Highly desirable;
Solidly built by qualified craftsmen;
Built on firm foundation;
Keeps out bad weather;
Predictable, traditional plan and features;
No surprises; Change is slow, evolutionary;

Building / Construction

Building / Construction

Building / Construction Metaphor

Causal

Common Objects or Activities

Cultural

Design/Drawings/Model

architect

blueprint

design

diagram

drawing

norm

parameter

plan

principle

standard

Ex B.1

Whole Group:

Look at the lexicon for this group of entailments.

Take a word.

What is something that someone in mediation might say using this word?

What other words might be added to this lexicon?

 

 

 

Think of what disputants might say that illustrates each group, and words within groups.

Look at lexicon

The mediators could be asked to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, they won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on their own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

It might be best to have an example or two of each entailment group (or to elicit these). Then to show the lexicons for each submapping (and to elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Ex B.2

Whole Group Exercise:

Take one of the examples,

and the relevant entailment groups,

and talk about questions to ask.

 

Mrs. Kelly needs the house for stability and continuity for the children.

This suggests "foundations", "joining":

"foundations" are solidly grounded, laid out carefully....

"fitting/joining/reinforcing" has to do with care in putting things together, fastening them firmly, making sure connections hold together.

When would you want to weaken a structure?

Now form pairs, choose another example<14>15Example Exercise<15> , and ask questions that gently challenge the dominant direction.

Ex B.3

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

In a divorce case, Mother wants to move to a distant city after divorce. Father says he will lose connection with the children and their relationship will be undermined.

What do you notice?

What is a possible metaphor? Name it.

What are the entailments of this metaphor?.

Keeping these in mind, ask a question to suggest entailments of same metaphor not yet invoked (e.g., blueprints; portability).

Name the metaphor again as necessary.

Discuss correspondence between the metaphor and the situation?

Discuss the rhetorical direction?

Overall evaluation communicated?

 

 

[do similarly for other "good" metaphors, but here it is with the whole-group and later it can be with a partner; at the end a more elaborate exercise can have indications of several metaphors in it]

Ex B.4

Developer and Retail Store representatives are negotiating a shopping center lease, and the retail representative says,

 

…so already the proposed contract is not fitting what we actually sell.

 

Reframe using terms from Design/Drawings/Model<14>15Design/Drawings/Model<15> lexicon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mrs. Smith needs the house for stability and continuity for the children.

We start with asking the employees when they are available and plugging them into the schedule.

How do you know about this emotional attachment?

I think we’d like to lay down what the parameters would be.

We think this an important part of the settlement so we are interested in having it in.

What you are getting here is a much more structured concept than what we are doing now.

It would be best for all parties to make a clean break, with each moving to new properties.

No to the last sentence, this is a situation that is not broken.

…so you’re able to have that rent while you’re figuring out what you need to do to restructure

I think that takes me back to the very top line and sort of thinking about under what kinds of operations we would let you...

We are saying we would give them a leave after they reach the one-year threshold

Ex G.1

Whole Group:

Look at the lexicon for this group of entailments.

Take a word.

What is something that someone in mediation might say using this word?

What other words might be added to this lexicon?

 

 

 

Think of what disputants might say that illustrates each group, and words within groups.

Look at lexicon

The mediators could be asked to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, they won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on their own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

It might be best to have an example or two of each entailment group (or to elicit these). Then to show the lexicons for each submapping (and to elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Ex G.2

Whole Group Exercise:

Take one of the examples,

and one of the entailment groups,

and talk about questions to ask.

 

…so next time you'll say well, ...the chances are there won't be any ill effects so let's just release the drug.

Try to introduce language that shifts this from game to sport.

Ex G.3

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

Divorce court order says young child shall call Father once a week, but calls occur only about half the time. Father wants the court to declare a penalty so Mother will follow the rules.

What do you notice?

What is a possible metaphor? Name it.

Review the entailments of this metaphor?.

Keeping these in mind, ask a question to clarify and enhance communications.

Name the metaphor again as necessary.

Discuss correspondence between the metaphor and the situation?

Discuss the rhetorical direction?

Overall evaluation communicated?

 

 

[do similarly for other "good" metaphors, but here it is with the whole-group and later it can be with a partner; at the end a more elaborate exercise can have indications of several metaphors in it]

Ex G.4

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

Divorce court order says young child shall call Father once a week, but calls occur only about half the time. Father wants the court to declare a penalty so Mother will follow the rules.

What do you notice?

What is a possible metaphor? Name it.

If the Father had expressed this idea using entirely literal language, what might he have said?

Ex G.5

Groups of 3 or 4, two disputants and 1 or 2 mediators; can also assign people to note metaphors used and identify their target, source, name, entailments, etc.
Choose one of the cases below.

Case 1:

On Father's week with kids, he wants them to go to Mom's house after school and he will pick them up at her house after work. Mom says this will be too disruptive regarding dinner, homework and the youngest child's bedtime.

Case 2:

"I really want the house, but I'm afraid that, in order to get it, I'll have to give up the pension."

For the case you choose to work with, do the following:

Assign roles, and briefly play.

What is a possible metaphor? Name and identify components.

Are values involved? Interests?

Using your sense of metaphors that are operating, identify values and/or interests and reframe by elaborating or extending the metaphor.

Continue role play.

 

 

Case 1, e.g., Life style of both parents (Dad's work paramount; Mom's homelife; containers, contents of which can be adjusted and metaphorically understood as game where objects of value are played for.

Case 2, may be only value of money, or may be home's atmosphere, etc. vs. money.

Ex J.1

Whole Group:

Look at the lexicon for this group of entailments.

Take a word.

What is something that someone in mediation might say using this word?

What other words might be added to this lexicon?

What might be a response that aligns with the same metaphor?

 

 

 

Think of what disputants might say that illustrates each group, and words within groups.

Look at lexicon

The mediators could be asked to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, they won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on their own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

It might be best to have an example or two of each entailment group (or to elicit these). Then to show the lexicons for each submapping (and to elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Ex J.2

Whole Group or fish bowl:

Make a response using words from lexicon:

Their positions are not close.

Take one step at a time.

How far must we take this discussion?

apart, distance, close, far, farther, map, chart, cover,

discover, drop, explore, find, flat, flow, guide, journey,

jungle, navigate, plain, plot, point, position, quest,

region, reorient, sea, seek, travel, voyage, world

 

 

 

Ex J.3

Whole Group Exercise:

Take one of the examples,

and one of the entailment groups,

and talk about questions to ask.

example:

…if we can just go back for a minute to…

This suggests perhaps the "path" group;

"paths" have starts, points along the way, boundries you shouldn't deviate from, junctions, destinations.

When would you want to go backwards on a path?

Now take another example, form pairs, and do the above.

Ex J.4

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

In a divorce case, Mom says she needs 7 years of financial support to finish her training, do her internship and get her career on track; Dad says 5.

What do you notice?

What is a possible metaphor? Name it.

What are the entailments of this metaphor?.

Keeping these in mind, ask a question to clarify and enhance communications.

Name the metaphor again as necessary.

Discuss correspondence between the metaphor and the situation?

Discuss the rhetorical direction?

Overall evaluation communicated?

 

 

[do similarly for other "good" metaphors, but here it is with the whole-group and later it can be with a partner; at the end a more elaborate exercise can have indications of several metaphors in it]

Ex J.5

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

From which subgroup is each of the following highlighted words? Name some of the other words in the lexicon for that subgroup. Substitute in sentences.

Then try substituting words from another subgroup.

O.K., I think that we’re making progress already…

…if we can just go back for a minute to…

You said you were going to re-evaluate your position in light of the discussion.

But we can probably find some middle ground that will provide us the assurance…

I want to just pursue that a little bit further

Yes, that is where we fundamentally disagree.

…there’s really just a little bit of distance between us at this point and it comes right back down to my expectations.

…here’s the alternative, we’d like to go with this alternative,

 

Ex J.6

Full Group Exercise:

"Jack, you are a lying jerk! You've cheated on me and betrayed our children! You're no good! I wish you were dead!"

Reframe each separate sentence in this quoted statement.

Try to detoxify and restate so as to suggest integrative principles using a metaphor such as
- Criticizing Jack is Putting Jack on the Right Path.
- Criticizing Jack is Pointing Jack in a New Direction.

- Criticizing Jack is Putting an Obstacle in His Way.

 

 

 

 

"Jack, you have not followed through from what you said.

You didn't stay together on the road with me or with the children, and left them stranded by the side of the road.

Your are not a good traveling companion. I wish you were no longer here."

"Jack, we cannot continue together if you don't stay on the path we had chosen together. You told me and the children you would go through life together with us buut you have turned off of our road onto some other road. Your road is extremely bumpy and dangerous and we should not go on it. We will leave you on your road and stay on the route we began on."

"Jack, you are taking a different path, but you really ought to see where your path is actually taking you, because it is going somewhere you said you would not go. Maybe you said you didn't want to go there, but you really do, which is a big disappointment to the kids and to me. If you are not interested in our destination then we cannot be together."

"Stop doing this, Jack! See how stupid this is and stop! If you knew you were betraying us would that make you stop?

Ex W.1

Whole Group:

Look at the lexicon for this group of entailments.

Take a word.

What is something that someone in mediation might say using this word?

What other words might be added to this lexicon?

What words from Game metaphor would you never

expect to see here?

 

 

 

Think of what disputants might say that illustrates each group, and words within groups.

Look at lexicon

The mediators could be asked to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, they won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on their own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

It might be best to have an example or two of each entailment group (or to elicit these). Then to show the lexicons for each submapping (and to elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Ex W.2

Whole Group Exercise:

Take one of the examples,

and one of the entailment groups,

and talk about questions to ask.

 

We are not going to agree… we are holding to our positions.

This suggests "war" in the sense that opposing forces dig in and fight as hard as necessary to keep the enemy from advancing or occupying captured territory.

Devise statements that gently point out the paradox between this metaphor and the discussions that are actually going on.

Ex W.3

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

In a case involving an estate dispute among adult children of deceased Mother, Son had intense argument with Mother just before she died, unresolved before death. He is now uncooperative because "she hit him where it hurts the most and then left."

What do you notice?

What is a possible metaphor? Name it.

What are the entailments of this metaphor?

Keeping these in mind, ask a question to introduce entailments likely to be left out.

Name the metaphor again as necessary.

Discuss correspondence between the metaphor and the situation?

What correspondences have been added.

Discuss any shift in the rhetorical direction?

Overall evaluation communicated?

 

 

[do similarly for other "good" metaphors, but here it is with the whole-group and later it can be with a partner; at the end a more elaborate exercise can have indications of several metaphors in it]

Ex W.4

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

In a case involving an estate dispute among adult children of deceased Mother, Son had intense argument with Mother just before she died, unresolved before death. He is now uncooperative because "she hit me where it hurts the most and then left."

What do you notice?

What is a possible metaphor? Name it.

If the Son had spoken using a Dance metaphor, what might he have said?

 

 

Ex W.5

Fishbowl or whole group: Two volunteers

In a case involving an estate dispute among adult children of deceased Mother, Son had intense argument with Mother just before she died, unresolved before death. He is now uncooperative because "she hit him where it hurts the most and then left."

What do you notice?

What is a possible metaphor? Name it.

If the Son had spoken using a Game metaphor, what might he have said?

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

 

…so already the proposed contract is not fitting what we actually sell.

Mrs. Smith needs the house for stability and continuity for the children.

Article 4? Standard boiler plate language.

We start with asking the employees when they are available and plugging them into the schedule.

How do you know about this emotional attachment?

I think we’d like to lay down what the parameters would be.

We think this an important part of the settlement so we are interested in having it in.

What you are getting here is a much more structured concept than what we are doing now.

It would be best for all parties to make a clean break, with each moving to new properties.

No to the last sentence, this is a situation that is not broken.

…so you’re able to have that rent while you’re figuring out what you need to do to restructure

I think that takes me back to the very top line and sort of thinking about under what kinds of operations we would let you...

We are saying we would give them a leave after they reach the one-year threshold

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

O.K., I think that we’re making progress already…

…if we can just go back for a minute to…

You said you were going to re-evaluate your position in light of the discussion.

But we can probably find some middle ground that will provide us the assurance…

I want to just pursue that a little bit further

Yes, that is where we fundamentally disagree.

…there’s really just a little bit of distance between us at this point and it comes right back down to my expectations.

…here’s the alternative, we’d like to go with this alternative,

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

O.K., I think that we’re making progress already…

…if we can just go back for a minute to…

You said you were going to re-evaluate your position in light of the discussion.

But we can probably find some middle ground that will provide us the assurance…

I want to just pursue that a little bit further

Yes, that is where we fundamentally disagree.

…there’s really just a little bit of distance between us at this point and it comes right back down to my expectations.

…here’s the alternative, we’d like to go with this alternative,

 

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

 

Now, that would allow us to either one to come up with a really good replacement for you and it would get us both in the game both working toward the same thing.

…so next time you'll say well, ...the chances are there won't be any ill effects so let's just release the drug.

…you want to penalize me for exercising my right to leave after the operating covenant and that just isn't acceptable.

Seniority doesn't trump another employe's [basic rights].

All right, the company will agree to pay for the uh cataracts and the operations and the time that he lost for working during the operation.

…it was the union that chose not to negotiate... they walked away in the middle.

Okay, before we start does everyone understand the goal to win?

I will inform groups when time is up.

…when you get to the end of the twelve-week period...

 

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

 

We are not going to agree… we are holding to our positions.

…as a discount retailer, someone who needs to survive, especially given the long-term nature of the lease…

If we are meeting here, I won’t give up dates [just] because there isn’t a mediator.

…it is, was not a criminal act that was performed, it wasn’t as if we’re deliberately trying to hurt somebody.

How I do business is across the table looking face to face. I am not interested in getting a contract I have to force on people.

We really need to be able to move quickly and change our strategy as needed.

It isn’t intended to be anything overly threatening, it is meant to be an opportunity for people to get together and talk.

But if you’re limiting us, to not try and innovate there

What we are concerned about is that it is the business that you are in and that that’s the restriction on your own use.

Well, that would be a little bit too difficult for us.

We want a safety net.

 

We do have a little challenge here.

The last issue to work out is always the hardest.

We prefer our language, yours is problematical because you exclude employees and the limit is 12 weeks.

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

 

Now, that would allow us to either one to come up with a really good replacement for you and it would get us both in the game both working toward the same thing.

…so next time you'll say well, ...the chances are there won't be any ill effects so let's just release the drug.

…you want to penalize me for exercising my right to leave [at the end of the lease term] and that just isn't acceptable.

Seniority doesn't trump another employe's [basic rights].

All right, the company will agree to pay for the... cataracts and the operations and the time that he lost for working during the operation.

…it was the union that chose not to negotiate... they walked away in the middle.

…when you get to the end of the twelve-week period...

 

 

Okay, before we start does everyone understand the goal to win?

I will inform groups when time is up.

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

 

We are not going to agree… we are holding to our positions.

…as a discount retailer, someone who needs to survive, especially given the long-term nature of the lease…

If we are meeting here, I won’t give up dates [just] because there isn’t a mediator.

It isn’t intended to be anything overly threatening, it is meant to be an opportunity for people to get together and talk.

…it is, was not a criminal act that was performed, it wasn’t as if we’re deliberately trying to hurt somebody.

How I do business is across the table looking face to face. I am not interested in getting a contract I have to force on people.

We really need to be able to move quickly and change our strategy as needed.

 

 

 

 

 

But if you’re limiting us, to not try and innovate there

What we are concerned about is that it is the business that you are in and that that’s the restriction on your own use.

Well, that would be a little bit too difficult for us.

We want a safety net.

 

We do have a little challenge here.

The last issue to work out is always the hardest.

We prefer our language, yours is problematical because you exclude employees and the limit is 12 weeks.

Example Exercise

Look for the following in the examples:

Target and Source

Entailments

Correspondences

Rhetorical direction

 

…so already the proposed contract is not fitting what we actually sell.

Mrs. Smith needs the house for stability and continuity for the children.

We start with asking the employees when they are available and plugging them into the schedule.

How do you know about this emotional attachment?

I think we’d like to lay down what the parameters would be.

We think this an important part of the settlement so we are interested in having it in.

What you are getting here is a much more structured concept than what we are doing now.

It would be best for all parties to make a clean break, with each moving to new properties.

No to the last sentence, this is a situation that is not broken.

…so you’re able to have that rent while you’re figuring out what you need to do to restructure

I think that takes me back to the very top line and sort of thinking about under what kinds of operations we would let you...

We are saying we would give them a leave after they reach the one-year threshold

Examples of Bodily Movement Metaphors

Examples of Causal Metaphors

Examples of Cultural Metaphors

Cultural metaphors have been developed by Gannon (2001), two of which are illustrated here.

Notes:
Cultural metaphors, which may key off of one or two particular words, are similarly hidden from conscious awareness (e.g., their project was conducted well from beginning to end (life is a symphony)).

Cultural metaphors can be very useful in setting up the negotiation situation, particularly with disputants from different cultures.

These "pre-formed" metaphors also have particular multiple Points of View and certain sets of Elements built in. That is, without being explicit, spacial relationships, movement in space, locations, boundaries, etc. are made integral to what is understood.

Are the Source Domains of cultural metaphors more likely to emphasize the organizational layers of Strategy and Direction than Performance?

Exercise 1

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 2

Explosion

blast

blow

burn

burst

combustion

explode

explosion

detonate

dynamite

explosion

flame

ignite

incinerate

spark

 

Fight

adversary

quarrel

restrict

row

safe

scrap

scuffle

struggle

wrangle

wrestle

conflict

defeat

defense

gladiator

hit

threat

win

lose

compel

drag

drive

force

impel

power

propel

push

strength

thrust

weight

brawl

challenge

clash

conflict

combat

compete

crusade

grab

limit

Fitting/Joining/Reinforcing

align

angle

arrange

assemble

attach

balance

brace

break

bridge

brittle

broken

buttress

cement

connect

construct

corner

crush

deconstruct

demolition

destruct

dismantle

dovetail

embed

erect

firm

fit

fitting

fixed

fragile

flexible

form

hammer

harden

integrate

join

laid

lay

link

network

parallel

reinforce

restructure

shape

solid

squash

stable

strong

structure

support

tie

weave

Following Path

Going where path, line, channel, passage goes.
Tracking the contours, direction.
Straight path, curved path, uphill, down hill.
Path guides you, you follow the path.
Going to, arriving at points along a path.
Path may be open, closed, run up against obstacles.
Bidrectional, can go in either of two directions, forward, backward.
Finding forks in the path, choosing which fork.
Deviations from path are possible, on track, off track.
Sticking to path and leaving the path are distinctly different.
A path with beginning and end point is a journey.
E.g., That's a well-worn path,
Creativity may seem the obscure path,
You do best by following the path,
Sainthood is a straight and narrow path,
Getting ahead means overcoming obstacles in the path,
She followed the rules,
He took the path of least resistance,
The project was an uphill struggle, but now it's all down hill.

Foundation

base

basis

bear

bearing

cellar

foundation

frame

ground

underly

underpin

Four "Good" Metaphor Source Domains

Often we "name" metaphors in order to make them more accessible and conscious, to remind us of possible vocabulary that make descriptions and explanations more clear. Just the name of a metaphor automatically calls to mind at least some of what is entailed in that metaphor. For example, if I mention "travel" as a metaphor, you are likely to think immediately of a change in scenery, going somewhere in a car or plane, packing, choosing a destination, etc. Likewise, recalling an entailment (e.g., "pack your bags") can elicit the entire metaphor.

[note this description from Tony Veale found in:

"Creativity is a vexing phenomenon to pin down formally, which is

perhaps why we tend to think of it in largely metaphoric terms. For

example, creativity is often conceived as a form of mental agility

that allows gifted individuals to make astonishing mental leaps from

one concept to another. Alternately, it is popularly conceived as a

form of lateral thinking that allows those who use it to insightfully

cut sideways through the hierarchical rigidity of conventional

categories. Common to most of these metaphors is the idea that

creativity involves recategorization, the ability to meaningfully move

a concept from one category to another in a way that unlocks hidden

value, perhaps by revealing a new and useful functional property of

the concept. For example, psychometric tests such as the Torrance test

of creative thinking try to measure this ability with tasks that,

e.g., ask a subject to list as many unusual and interesting uses of

old tin cans as possible. Likewise, SAT analogy tests often require

students to recognize functional or behavioral similarities between

concept pairs that display little or no superficial similarity.

"Fortunately, lexicalized ontologies like WordNet that are rich with

instances of metaphor and polysemy are also rich in implicit evidence

of the conceptual innovations underlying creative thinking, both with

words and with artifacts. I show that by tapping into these

non-literal influences, WordNet's ontology can be made more conducive

to the development of creative thinking systems."

One useful way to expand your capacity with metaphor is to organize and become more familiar with useful categories of Source Domains. Four of them are given on this page, but a number of others have been found (Kovecses, 2002) to account for large percentages of metaphors actually used by English speakers: the human body, health and illness, animals, plants, buildings and construction, machines and tools, game and sport, money and economic transactions, cooking and food, heat and cold, light and darkness, forces, movement and direction.

Can we simply list a number of common source domains?

Can we divide these into things and processes (some are both)? I wquld propose "Objects" and "Processes" (could be structure and function); then take the appropriate part of each one below and locate as appropriate:

Object Processes (function of objects)

--------- ---------

(except for person, human body, state, next four are Event Structure)

Human body, state (location) Bodily movement, growth, devel.

Force, direction, path, location Pushing, blocking, journey

Container, channel, conduit, path containing, channeling

Destination

(despite process aspect, next four are Chain of Being)

Person, role, rank, code, rules, etc doing job,

Game, sport playing sport...

Animal, animal body, state way animal appears, moves, sounds, etc.

Plant, parts of plant growth, etc.

(other)

Building, parts of building construction

Machine, tool operation of machine, use of tool

Money, value, debt, credit transaction, economic process

Food, dish, recipe cooking

Heat, cold heating, warming, cooling, freezing

Light, darkness lighting, blocking...

[Workshops: Emphasize use of Path/Journey (include Bodily Movement)

Gardening (include Plant)

Game/Contest/Sport

Within these show Elements and Event Structure/Causation]

[Note also, with regard to metaphors used to describe mediation, that certain conceptual metaphors come up repeatedly. For example, the metaphors of body movement/object

manipulation, force dynamics, and containers; also see the seven interacting metaphor groups (containers, objects, terrain, vision, movement, journeying and structuring).

Furthering the Process by Uncovering Metaphors

Game

play

ball

draw

cards

poker

trump

casino

chance

chess

checkmate

stalemate

fair

win

lose

payoff

rule

score

turn

Games / Sports

Games / Sports

Games / Sports Metaphor

German Symphony

Very old, elaborate, idealized, traditional form;
Several interconnected movements or parts;
Everything in own place, corresponding to function;
Blends large number of very different voices into beautiful, harmonious, wide-ranging expressions;
Depends upon carefully constructed linear score;
Individuals must be highly talented, well trained;
Doing prescribed part in large group, seldom solo;
Each person strives for very best, always improved;
Practice, precision, synchronization are critical;
Careful control improves resulting quality;
Leadership earned through competence, talent;
Requires great resources, rehearsals to perfect;

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

The intention here is to familiarize you with a source domain in more depth and more consciously than occurs ordinarily. The source domain is broken down into subparts. Clicking on the subparts gives the lexicon for each. The words in the lexicon are those that, if heard, suggest that this metaphor is operating in the speaker's thinking. Accompanying exercises (click on the various places you see "Ex...") are the key to experiencing the metaphors and working with them consciously.

____________________________________________________________________
Notes:

To help convince you that negotiators or mediation clients actually chose this metaphor, we show you some examples of actual dialog (in "Example Exercise").

Also with the examples (many of which offer very conventional language in negotiation situations, to which people may say, "so what about these weak metaphors") the submappings show immediately some ways to explore what people mean (e.g. "But we can probably find some middle ground..." - this is conventional language, the usually understood meaning is people going in opposite or opposing directions now can find a similar direction - and the submappings suggest ways to explore this 'middle ground' by reminding us of the possibilities that the middle ground is on the way to a joint goal [what is it?], what can be used to convey us to it? have we been on separate paths or the same one in different positions? are we prepared to travel together or would it go better if we went separately but meet up from time to time?). So in this way the mediator can draw on life experiences of journeys, long and short,

I can assure you from hours of pouring over negotiation transcripts and building concordances from special lexicons that these metaphors are repeatedly used by almost anyone in negotiation. So your time is well spent in familiarizing yourselves with them.

Note too that when you use your knowledge of the metaphor source domain you maintain a respectful distance from (you are not delving so much into the detail of) the concrete substance and details of what is being negotiated. Remember how John Haynes spoke of not needing to know the nitty gritty of what disputants are talking about to be the most effective mediator? Not only does this take burden off of you to have detailed content knowledge but, more importantly, it leaves the disputants free to find their own ways among the details and circumstances of their own lives.

Then, to begin the familiarization we show the overlapping submappings. There are examples of each submapping (or elicit these). Then the lexicons for each submapping are found by clicking the title of the subcategory or submapping (and exercises elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Some exercises ask you to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, you won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on your own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

This might be all that is necessary for the familiarization phase. Then we go to exercises where recognition is involved

Examples are from actual negotiations.

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

The intention here is to familiarize you with a source domain in more depth and more consciously than occurs ordinarily. The source domain is broken down into subparts. Clicking on the subparts gives the lexicon for each. The words in the lexicon are those that, if heard, suggest that this metaphor is operating in the speaker's thinking. Accompanying exercises (click on the various places you see "Ex...") are the key to experiencing the metaphors and working with them consciously.

____________________________________________________________________
Notes:

To help convince you that negotiators or mediation clients actually chose this metaphor, we show you some examples of actual dialog (in "Example Exercise").

Also with the examples (many of which offer very conventional language in negotiation situations, to which people may say, "so what about these weak metaphors") the submappings show immediately some ways to explore what people mean (e.g. "But we can probably find some middle ground..." - this is conventional language, the usually understood meaning is people going in opposite or opposing directions now can find a similar direction - and the submappings suggest ways to explore this 'middle ground' by reminding us of the possibilities that the middle ground is on the way to a joint goal [what is it?], what can be used to convey us to it? have we been on separate paths or the same one in different positions? are we prepared to travel together or would it go better if we went separately but meet up from time to time?). So in this way the mediator can draw on life experiences of journeys, long and short,

I can assure you from hours of pouring over negotiation transcripts and building concordances from special lexicons that these metaphors are repeatedly used by almost anyone in negotiation. So your time is well spent in familiarizing yourselves with them.

Note too that when you use your knowledge of the metaphor source domain you maintain a respectful distance from (you are not delving so much into the detail of) the concrete substance and details of what is being negotiated. Remember how John Haynes spoke of not needing to know the nitty gritty of what disputants are talking about to be the most effective mediator? Not only does this take burden off of you to have detailed content knowledge but, more importantly, it leaves the disputants free to find their own ways among the details and circumstances of their own lives.

Then, to begin the familiarization we show the overlapping submappings. There are examples of each submapping (or elicit these). Then the lexicons for each submapping are found by clicking the title of the subcategory or submapping (and exercises elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Some exercises ask you to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, you won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on your own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

This might be all that is necessary for the familiarization phase. Then we go to exercises where recognition is involved

Examples are from actual negotiations.

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

The intention here is to familiarize you with a source domain in more depth and more consciously than occurs ordinarily. The source domain is broken down into subparts. Clicking on the subparts gives the lexicon for each. The words in the lexicon are those that, if heard, suggest that this metaphor is operating in the speaker's thinking. Accompanying exercises (click on the various places you see "Ex...") are the key to experiencing the metaphors and working with them consciously.

____________________________________________________________________
Notes:

To help convince you that negotiators or mediation clients actually chose this metaphor, we show you some examples of actual dialog (in "Example Exercise").

Also with the examples (many of which offer very conventional language in negotiation situations, to which people may say, "so what about these weak metaphors") the submappings show immediately some ways to explore what people mean (e.g. "But we can probably find some middle ground..." - this is conventional language, the usually understood meaning is people going in opposite or opposing directions now can find a similar direction - and the submappings suggest ways to explore this 'middle ground' by reminding us of the possibilities that the middle ground is on the way to a joint goal [what is it?], what can be used to convey us to it? have we been on separate paths or the same one in different positions? are we prepared to travel together or would it go better if we went separately but meet up from time to time?). So in this way the mediator can draw on life experiences of journeys, long and short,

I can assure you from hours of pouring over negotiation transcripts and building concordances from special lexicons that these metaphors are repeatedly used by almost anyone in negotiation. So your time is well spent in familiarizing yourselves with them.

Note too that when you use your knowledge of the metaphor source domain you maintain a respectful distance from (you are not delving so much into the detail of) the concrete substance and details of what is being negotiated. Remember how John Haynes spoke of not needing to know the nitty gritty of what disputants are talking about to be the most effective mediator? Not only does this take burden off of you to have detailed content knowledge but, more importantly, it leaves the disputants free to find their own ways among the details and circumstances of their own lives.

Then, to begin the familiarization we show the overlapping submappings. There are examples of each submapping (or elicit these). Then the lexicons for each submapping are found by clicking the title of the subcategory or submapping (and exercises elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Some exercises ask you to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, you won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on your own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

This might be all that is necessary for the familiarization phase. Then we go to exercises where recognition is involved

Examples are from actual negotiations.

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

The intention here is to familiarize you with a source domain in more depth and more consciously than occurs ordinarily. The source domain is broken down into subparts. Clicking on the subparts gives the lexicon for each. The words in the lexicon are those that, if heard, suggest that this metaphor is operating in the speaker's thinking. Accompanying exercises (click on the various places you see "Ex...") are the key to experiencing the metaphors and working with them consciously.

____________________________________________________________________
Notes:

To help convince you that negotiators or mediation clients actually chose this metaphor, we show you some examples of actual dialog (in "Example Exercise").

Also with the examples (many of which offer very conventional language in negotiation situations, to which people may say, "so what about these weak metaphors") the submappings show immediately some ways to explore what people mean (e.g. "But we can probably find some middle ground..." - this is conventional language, the usually understood meaning is people going in opposite or opposing directions now can find a similar direction - and the submappings suggest ways to explore this 'middle ground' by reminding us of the possibilities that the middle ground is on the way to a joint goal [what is it?], what can be used to convey us to it? have we been on separate paths or the same one in different positions? are we prepared to travel together or would it go better if we went separately but meet up from time to time?). So in this way the mediator can draw on life experiences of journeys, long and short,

I can assure you from hours of pouring over negotiation transcripts and building concordances from special lexicons that these metaphors are repeatedly used by almost anyone in negotiation. So your time is well spent in familiarizing yourselves with them.

Note too that when you use your knowledge of the metaphor source domain you maintain a respectful distance from (you are not delving so much into the detail of) the concrete substance and details of what is being negotiated. Remember how John Haynes spoke of not needing to know the nitty gritty of what disputants are talking about to be the most effective mediator? Not only does this take burden off of you to have detailed content knowledge but, more importantly, it leaves the disputants free to find their own ways among the details and circumstances of their own lives.

Then, to begin the familiarization we show the overlapping submappings. There are examples of each submapping (or elicit these). Then the lexicons for each submapping are found by clicking the title of the subcategory or submapping (and exercises elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Some exercises ask you to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, you won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on your own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

This might be all that is necessary for the familiarization phase. Then we go to exercises where recognition is involved

Examples are from actual negotiations.

Hearing and Responding to a Metaphor in Dialog

The intention here is to familiarize you with a source domain in more depth and more consciously than occurs ordinarily. The source domain is broken down into subparts. Clicking on the subparts gives the lexicon for each. The words in the lexicon are those that, if heard, suggest that this metaphor is operating in the speaker's thinking. Accompanying exercises (click on the various places you see "Ex...") are the key to experiencing the metaphors and working with them consciously.

____________________________________________________________________
Notes:

To help convince you that negotiators or mediation clients actually chose this metaphor, we show you some examples of actual dialog (in "Example Exercise").

Also with the examples (many of which offer very conventional language in negotiation situations, to which people may say, "so what about these weak metaphors") the submappings show immediately some ways to explore what people mean (e.g. "But we can probably find some middle ground..." - this is conventional language, the usually understood meaning is people going in opposite or opposing directions now can find a similar direction - and the submappings suggest ways to explore this 'middle ground' by reminding us of the possibilities that the middle ground is on the way to a joint goal [what is it?], what can be used to convey us to it? have we been on separate paths or the same one in different positions? are we prepared to travel together or would it go better if we went separately but meet up from time to time?). So in this way the mediator can draw on life experiences of journeys, long and short,

I can assure you from hours of pouring over negotiation transcripts and building concordances from special lexicons that these metaphors are repeatedly used by almost anyone in negotiation. So your time is well spent in familiarizing yourselves with them.

Note too that when you use your knowledge of the metaphor source domain you maintain a respectful distance from (you are not delving so much into the detail of) the concrete substance and details of what is being negotiated. Remember how John Haynes spoke of not needing to know the nitty gritty of what disputants are talking about to be the most effective mediator? Not only does this take burden off of you to have detailed content knowledge but, more importantly, it leaves the disputants free to find their own ways among the details and circumstances of their own lives.

Then, to begin the familiarization we show the overlapping submappings. There are examples of each submapping (or elicit these). Then the lexicons for each submapping are found by clicking the title of the subcategory or submapping (and exercises elicit examples of what mediators might (from their own experience) imagine clients could say for a sample of words from the lexicon).

Some exercises ask you to add to the list of each submapping (emphasizing that, in the end, you won't memorize a lexicon, but draw on your own familiarity with the source domain to recognize metaphors).

This might be all that is necessary for the familiarization phase. Then we go to exercises where recognition is involved

Examples are from actual negotiations.

Illustration

Illustrations to Guide Exercises

link to screen that gives preliminary exercise example

Journey

Journey

Journey Metaphor

Let us look for the structure of these metaphors and how they help us further the medition process

List of Metaphor Names and Entailments

Locomotion

come

accelerate

continue

go

arrive

depart

launch

leave

lost

lurch

move

onward

plummet

plunge

pursue

reach

runaway

slide

soar

speed

stagger

start

stride

stumble

traction

tumble

Major Entailments

Major Entailments

Major Entailments

Major Entailments

Major Groups of Entailments

Major Groups of Entailments

Major Groups of Entailments

Major Groups of Entailments

maybe new examples

but existing ones aren't bad - be sure all suggested "good" metaphors are illustrated

Metaphor

Metaphor

Metaphor

Metaphor

Metaphor

Metaphor

Metaphor

Metaphor

More on Bodily Movement / Object Manipulation Metaphors

More on Causal Metaphors

Name Entailments Exercise

Whole Group Exercise:

In general terms, name some of the entailments of this metaphor?

What words might we hear?

Name Entailments Exercise

Whole Group Exercise:

In general terms, name some of the entailments of this metaphor?

What words might we hear?

Name Entailments Exercise

Whole Group Exercise:

In general terms, name some of the entailments of this metaphor?

What words might we hear?

Name Entailments Exercise

Whole Group Exercise:

In general terms, name some of the entailments of this metaphor?

What words might we hear?

needs change

Notes on Guiding vs. Uncovering

Obstructions

barrier

obstacle

obstruct

impasse

delay

detour

around

drag

weight

load

encumber

hinder

homesick

impede

impediment

intractable

setback

traffic

wait

fall

Path

astray

avenue

backtrack

backward

abandon

ahead

alley

along

behind

bridge

bump

choice

choose

climb

conduct

course

crossroad

destination

dip

direction

diverge

downhill

end

fork

forward

goal

heading

highway

junction

lane

lead

location

long

objective

path

pass

passage

progress

route

retrace

road

shortcut

slump

smooth

steer

station

step

stopover

stray

street

superhighway

through

toward

track

trail

tunnel

turn

uphill

way

Phases

module

section

Pushing / Pulling

External force, moving, being moved,
Pushing away, pushing into,
Pushing in certain direction,
Pushing towards something
E.g., She pushed forward nonetheless.
Don't push me.
We needed that push.
It was a push in the right direction.
Pulling in a direction,
Pulling away, pulling towards
E.g., Pulling out,
Pulling something over,
Pulled down,
A pull towards someone,

Self-Propelled Motion

Moving on own (not pushed or pulled)
Locomotion, change of location (state),
Action, motion generated from inside,
E.g., He went on with the project,
You can go to sleep any time,
Think about what's next,
She worked herself up,
He over-reached himself,
He went beyond what was required,

Sport

bounds

dexterity

dodge

faking

foul

goal

hardball

marathon

penalty

referee

sport

sideline

team

time-out

touchdown

umpire

Strategy

game plan

play book

Strategy

strategy

game plan

Struggle

challenge

arrest

struggle

wrangle

Try

strive

overcome

against

uphill

Subgroups can each select different metaphors to listen for

Territory

apart

distance

close

far

farther

map

chart

cover

discover

drop

explore

find

flat

flow

guide

journey

jungle

navigate

plain

plot

point

position

quest

region

reorient

sea

seek

travel

voyage

world

that may produce a shift.

to generate mediator comments and questions

Turning Someone / Something into...

Example: We'll make a student out of him yet.
Agent We
Force make
Affected him
Location student
Obstacles (alluded to, but not described)

update

Vehicles

passenger

propel

aboard

wheel

car

rocket

airplane

jet

boat

train

transport

truck

vehicle

fly

sail

walk

seatbelt

brakes

baggage

luggage

suitcase

pack

burden

borne

carry

follow

gallop

harness

landing

saddle

schedule

Verticality

ceiling

floor

roof

wall

scaffold

level

perpendicular

pillar

collapse

flatten

raze

stand

standing

tower

upright

vertical

War

attack

battle

battalion

bomb

brutal

capitulate

capture

conquer

destroy

enemy

fortify

gun

liberate

marching

merciless

military

mobilize

occupy

offensive

patrol

peace

prisoner

retreat

ruthless

sacrifice

secure

skirmish

shoot

siege

soldier

surrender

surround

surveillance

survive

target

truce

victor

warrior

weapon

War / Fight

War / Fight

War / Fight Metaphor

Which Ones To Learn?

Here we name four widely used metaphor source domains (Smith, 2005 [IACM paper]), show the principal groupings of entailments in each and, in turn, the lexicons that indicate that these entailments may signal the ongoing use of the metaphor.

Smith's research suggests that we learn these metaphors in some depth because they are likely to be operating at some point in almost any mediation. With in-depth knowledge, the mediator can more easily hear one of the these metaphors when operating, interpret, query, and extend constructively.

The proposition here is that learning more about a metaphor makes it possible to use it in enhanced ways.